What Is The Standard Function Of A PMO?


– By Rossana Palummieri, Project Manager at ACI Worldwide

Rossana Palummieri

Rossana Palummieri, PMP, CSM., is a project manager at a global company that focuses primarily on facilitating electronic payments.  She provides an expanded perspective on IT Project Management due to 20 in software engineering and seven years as a project manager for both internal and customer projects.  She understands the constraints and difficulties of projects from both the customer and vendor perspective.

What Is The Standard Function Of A PMO?

An “Organization” according to Merriam-Webster is “an administrative and functional structure” or the “process of organizing and being organized” (Merriam-Webster).  So to think of a “standards organization”, it implies the PMO is organized just for standards.   Is this possible?  Or course it is, but it would be missing out a lot as an effective PMO if that’s all it did – what about teaching what those standards are and introducing best practices (knowledge).   In fact, an insight into the 2015 State of the PMO by ESI indicated that no matter what type of PMO, there are services, including “Methodology, Processes, and Standards” that span across different types (Scott, 2015).  And while the Center of Excellence PMO would be more inclined to focus on these, one could very well find these services in an organization unit PMO or a project PMO (Scott, 2015).  Therefore, in my opinion, this week we are looking at the Standards function of a PMO rather than the PMO as being a Standards “organization”.  In many articles and various research papers (not going to name them all here as we’ve been through a myriad of them over the past few years), I have seen PMOs defined as the Project Management Institute does, and also as related to focus area: supportive, controlling, or directive (Reiling, 2014) .   To limit a PMO to just standards, knowledge, or consulting just feels as if we are missing a holistic view of an effective PMO.

So what is the “standards” function of a PMO?  In a nutshell, it is to provide a framework so that project performance, tools, and procedures are standardized (Nayab, 2010).  In the 2012 publication “executive guide to project management” by the Project Management Institute, Janice Weaver of Norton Healthcare describes how important it is to have “sound, proven project management skills and tools” in times of economic crisis.  In fact, the article goes to describe how standardized templates and processes help companies to cut costs and reduce risks by implementing documented and repeatable processes (Project Management Institute, 2012).  When procedures have been proven and are repeatable, companies [and project managers] can focus on value action items such as innovation and quality (Project Management Institute, 2012),  rather than trying to determine what works or doesn’t or, as I have seen in personal experience, ‘reinventing the wheel’ with every new project.


Standardizing processes into repeatable practices is not the only advantage of the standards function of a PMO.   There are other standards that a mature PMO and organization benefit from.  For example, standardized metrics allow a company to become more proactive since they help to determine direction early in a project or a program and allow for corrective action (Project Management Institute, 2012).

If we were to consider project management in terms of capability maturity models, several project management maturity models have been developed that mimic the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) model with different levels of maturity.   A popular model, PM Solutions’ Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) uses the PMBOK’s ten knowledge areas as part of the framework for maturity.   With 5 levels in the model, level 3 very specifically outlines maturity as “organizational standards and institutionalized process” (Crawford, 2015).  To reach this maturity level and achieving this level of standardization, a PMO is critical in developing and promoting the project management standards and methodologies (Crawford, 2015).  A 2010 survey on the State of the PMO by PM Solutions indicated that of the companies surveyed, 31% of companies with a PMO achieved the level 3 maturity, whereas only 13% of companies reached this level (PMSolutions, 2010).

With the above literature support, I will add a personal insight into this topic.   Our company has two business  processes PMOs (yes, I know – this somewhat disagrees with my original statement about a “standards organization”, but in my defense, these PMOs not only define the standards, but also audit them, and provide training materials and tools support for project management effectiveness).  In any case, one of these groups is for Product Development and the other for our Services (i.e. Customer) areas.  What is interesting is that I’ve had to transition from the more mature Product Development area of the company to the less standardized Services area.  And, as a project manager, I can truly see the benefits of those standards I used to complain about.   For example, having project websites that keep particular project artifacts – a pain in the neck to be sure to maintain and be audited on – but how helpful when you are the project manager taking over an existing project and need to understand the history of it.  How amazing when we can go back and look at previous similar projects and know that our estimates and plans are consistent with what previously worked and, thereby, reduce the risk to our projects due to the “unknown”.  In this newer less mature group, we don’t have all the standards at our finger tips – they are just developing.  I have seen project after project, over this past year, with the same area of focus (related to a current mandatory business direction) reinvent the wheel.  If I ask whether there is a template I can follow, I am provided with 5 totally different approaches – each with benefits and pitfalls.   So the amount of inefficiency is astounding.   And, so is the amount of risk to the customers I’m trying to service since I am now “reinventing the wheel” yet again.   While I may not agree that a PMO is specifically a “standards organization”, I whole heartedly agree that “standards” are a key and important function of an effective PMO and with promoted standards a company’s projects become more efficient and less risky.


Crawford, K. (2015, March). What is Project Maturity Model? Retrieved from IT Performance Improvement: http://www.ittoday.info/ITPerformanceImprovement/Articles/2015-03Crawford.html

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Organization. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/organization

Nayab, N. (2010, April 28). The Scope of PMO. Retrieved from Bright Hub Project Management: http://www.brighthubpm.com/certification/69777-understanding-pmo-roles-and-responsibilities/

PM Solutions . (2010). The State of the PMO 2010. Retrieved from PM Solutions: http://www.pmsolutions.com/collateral/research/State%20of%20the%20PMO%202010%20Research%20Report.pdf

Project Management Institute. (2012). executive guide to project management. Retrieved from PMI: http://www.pmi.org/-/media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/publications/pmi-executive-guide.pdf

Project Management Institute. (2013, November). PMO Frameworks. Retrieved from PMI: http://www.pmi.org/-/media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/learning/thought-leadership/pulse/pmo-frameworks.pdf

Reiling, J. (2014, July 5). The 3 Different Types of Project Management Offices. Retrieved from projectsmart: http://www.projectsmart.com/articles/3-different-types-of-project-management-offices.php

Scott, L. (2015, June 25). The Most Important Services a PMO Provides. Retrieved from ESI International: http://www.esi-intl.co.uk/blogs/pmoperspectives/index.php/the-most-important-services-a-pmo-provides/

Thought Leadership in Project Management: with Jonathan H. Avidan, Vice President at AxiomSL

Jonathan Avidan, PMP, CSM

Jonathan Avidan, PMP, CSM., currently serves as Vice President at AxiomSL. He has over 13+ years of experience in financial services, banking and insurance, specifically within compliance, regulatory reporting, operations and related technology infrastructure practices. Graduating from Boston University’s Questrom School of Business with a dual major in Operations & Technology Management and Entrepreneurship, Mr. Avidan is a skilled team-builder and disciplined leader, who can manage people, processes and change while developing and maintaining key/strategic relationships.  Currently a MBA candidate for Temple University’s Fox School of Business, he is also an experienced Process Manager proficient in technology and system implementations (SaaS) and multi-million dollar development projects that impact multiple departments or entities within an organization.  He has a track record of analyzing business processes and developing practical solutions that drive efficiency, improve client service, and reduce risk.

Can you tell me what your organization does?

AxiomSL is the global leader in regulatory reporting and risk management solutions for the financial industry, including banks, broker dealers, asset managers and insurance companies. Its unique enterprise data management (EDM) platform delivers data lineage, risk aggregation, analytics, workflow automation, validation and audit functionality.

The AxiomSL platform seamlessly integrates clients’ source data from disparate systems and geographical locations without forcing data conversion. It enriches and validates the data, and runs it through risk and regulatory calculations to produce both internal and external reports. The platform supports disclosures in multiple formats, including XBRL. The unparalleled transparency offered by the high-performance platform gives users the ability to drill down on their data to any level of granularity.

AxiomSL’s platform supports compliance with a wide range of global and local regulations, including Basel III capital and liquidity requirements, the Dodd-Frank Act, FATCA, AEI (CRS), EMIR, COREP/FINREP, CCAR, FDSF, BCBS 239, Solvency II, AIFMD, IFRS 9, central bank disclosures, and both market and credit risk management requirements. The enterprise-wide approach offered by AxiomSL enables clients to leverage their existing data and risk management infrastructure, and reduces implementation costs, time to market and complexity.

How do they use Project Management?

AxiomSL has a Program Management Office (PMO).  Currently, we have a strong team of experienced project managers who are tasked with ensuring the success of the firm’s technology implementation engagements.  At AxiomSL, project management methodologies, specifically those found within the PMBOK, are used to ensure proper configuration and execution of our flagship platform, ControllerView®.

What does a typical day look like for you as a project manager? 

I currently manage five projects for five different banks in the continental United States.  The project management structure within AxiomSL offers flexibility for the PM role since the main resources responsible for execution of each statement of work (SOW) are the Implementation Lead and Implementation Specialists.  In this regard, I am able to allocate 20% of my time per project, every day and each week.  My primary responsibilities are to manage and maintain proper lines of communication while providing status updates to the client, AxiomSL management and other key stakeholders.  As a project manager it is also essential for me to develop and sustain relationships with various decision makers, as well.

I am also responsible for drafting effort estimations, work orders and other organizational process assets that will ensure efficiency and transparency within the project.

What PM tools and techniques that you value the most at your job?

I often find myself balancing the 5 Project Constraints (quality, time, cost, scope, shareholders) during each phase of a project.  Each client requires their own dynamic project constraint framework in which a specific mix at any given time could make or break the project.

Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) are frequently used in order to keep track of the activities associated with each resource over the duration of the engagement.  In addition to the WBS, Gantt charts, MS Project, and various logs are used to maintain consistency, proper communication and order.  Specific logs utilized are for the documentation of risks, issues, action items and scope changes that may arise.  By listing these items in a log from the very beginning of the project, a project manager can ensure that all key stakeholders understand and are aware of the day to day items that can potentially shift the trajectory of the implementation.

My most important technique is communication.  I put a tremendous amount of effort into making sure that all communication lines and open and healthy.  To do this, I create an environment of collaboration and teamwork with a shared paradigm of “one goal”.  When all stakeholders realize that everyone working on the project has the same goal, the engagement becomes more cohesive and collegiate while providing a sense of comradery and professionalism.

How large is your project team and what are their roles?

My project teams are typically comprised of the following roles and responsibilities:

Role Key Responsibilities
Project Manager Responsible for the overall success of the engagement.  Specifically, the PM ensures proper execution of all implementation project activities including but not limited to requirements review, configuration, testing, training, change management.  Responsible for project plan creation, maintenance and upkeep, status tracking, updates and communication, as well as coordination with client stakeholders and other teams or individuals working in conjunction with the AxiomSL implementation team.
Implementation Lead Brings in-depth knowledge in regulatory reporting and work experience with AxiomSL including tracking Federal Reserve report updates, enhancing report functionality, researching reporting requirements, development, configuration, and implementation of regulatory reports.

Responsible for implementation by taking direction from Solution Architect and following the timelines managed by Project Manager.

Subject Matter Expert Brings extensive experience in designing and implementing enterprise MIS solutions for risk, regulatory, and financial reporting requirements for major financial institutions. Possesses subject matter expertise in U.S. risk and regulatory requirements, and financial reporting.

Responsible for reviewing the functional specs and working with client, Solution Architect and Configuration Specialists to fill in any requirements gaps from regulatory and implementation perspective.

Solution Architect Brings extensive experience in designing and implementing AxiomSL solutions for risk, regulatory, and financial reporting requirements for major financial institutions. Possesses both subject matter expertise in U.S. risk and regulatory requirements and reporting, and in-depth technical knowledge in Axiom software.

Leads the project team in implementation. Responsible for conceptual and functional design of implementation. Reviews the Functional Specs documents to ensure all required functionality is implemented.

IT Specialist The IT Specialist brings deep experience in deployment of AxiomSL software including knowledge of databases and data structures.  Provides support to the implementation team and client staff for testing, performance tuning, installation, database connections and technical support

Project teams can range from 5 to as many as 15 resources.  This depends on the complexity of the implementation coupled with the number of reports requiring on-site configuration.

What type of leadership style do you use to support your team given their diversity, multiple locations and expertise?

I have always believed that a true leader empowers others with the tools and knowledge they need to then become leaders themselves.  Additionally, I feel that a successful leader is able to incorporate “people skills” into their management style – basic things like recognizing the efforts of team members to simply complimenting them for a job well done.  Ultimately, I put a strong emphasis on ensuring that my team members clearly understand their objectives while buying into the corporate vision and mission.  I always try to inspire others while delegating responsibility.  At the same time, I let them do their own work and expecting nothing short of success.

We met in Philadelphia during a Scrum Certification training. Why did your company sponsor your Scrum training?  

AxiomSL PMO feels that software development projects in the banking industry are moving towards a more Agile methodology. The Scrum pattern is one of the more popular methods in which results can be fruitful if implemented properly.

What is the value that your company sees with Scrum for their projects?

AxiomSL is a technology company that implements software on a client site in order to improve the transparency, auditability and filing processes of the bank’s regulatory reports.  One of the reasons AxiomSL is so successful in what we do while maintaining our position as a “best-in-class” provider is our ability to fit into our clients’ existing project management methodologies and software development lifecycle (SDLC) processes.  This means that if one of our clients wants to execute our implementation by using the Waterfall methodology, then we will do it. On the other hand, if the client is Agile and uses Scrum, then we will adapt our implementation to fit within the Scrum pattern (i.e. sprints, backlogs, ceremonies).

In regards to internal projects like new product development, AxiomSL is looking at Scrum as the pattern to deliver these new products more efficiently.  Since these projects would be executed in-house, the organization will have more control as to the type of methodology used.  In the past, more traditional methods like waterfall have been utilized for internal projects.  The results suffer due to the lack of ability to adjust and improve on the fly.  We are hoping to mitigate these challenges with Scrum moving forward.


What other things have you and your company put in place to make sure Scrum is implemented successfully?

We are in the process of organizing an internal Scrum training for product owners and our development teams.  The main reason for doing this is to raise awareness about Scrum and its benefits.

As a project manager we use a lot of different methodologies, why do you think Scrum is most suitable for your type of projects?

As I mentioned above, AxiomSL harnesses the power of flexibility when accommodating to our clients’ existing project management methodologies.  If Scrum is most suitable to the client, we will need to ensure we have trained resources who are ready to adapt.  This is accomplished through certifications, trainings and communicating internally with different departments in order to get the message out there about Scrum and its ability to streamline and improve the way we do business with our clients.

Connect with Jonathan Avidan: www.linkedin.com/in/jonathanavidan

AxiomSLAxiomSL was awarded The Asian Banker’s 2016 “Best Compliance Risk Technology Implementation of the Year” as well as “Best Implementation at a Sell-side Firm” in the 2016 Sell-side Technology Awards. In addition, AxiomSL was voted Best Reporting System Provider in the 2015 Waters Rankings and was highlighted as a ‘category leader’ by Chartis Research in its 2015 Sell-side Risk Management Technology report. The company’s work has also been recognized through a number of other accolades, including success in the Best Reporting Initiative category of the American Financial Technology Awards and in the Customer Satisfaction section of the Chartis RiskTech100 rankings.


Projectizing Hospitals: Hiring and Retaining Talent in Healthcare Organizations

healthcaretechnology_800_500_s_c1By Dr. Terrence D. Duncan

Healthcare organizations feature a multitude of positions and departments based on the unique specializations.  Whether it is a hospital, assisted living center, or skilled nursing facility, the variety of positions can create a strain on human resources and regular operations management.  The rigorous demands of each position sometimes feature a combination of their essential functions of the position, as well as absorbing some form of other responsibility from other positions in that particular department. As a result, the ability to hire and retain the appropriate talent and building a quality team is essential in managing a healthcare organization.

Turnover is relatively high in the healthcare industry. High turnover results in increased direct and indirect costs. Direct costs could include costs associated with training, recruitment, separation, and litigation. Indirect costs could include lower morale, lower productivity, and negative perceptions of the organization and leadership.  Although these costs ultimately affect the bottom line, these costs also negatively affect the organization’s ability to take care of one of the most important stakeholders: the patient or resident. Ultimately, the human resources management processes also correlate with understanding risk and determining how to mitigate your project and organization against high risk.

As project managers continue to acquire and build talent for their associated process, two Human Resources Management processes come to mind: Develop Project Team and Manage Project Team.  Hiring and retaining talent in healthcare is an operational priority.  Due to some of the current challenges provided through recent legislative changes and federal funding restrictions, it may be difficult to pay or maintain a competitive wage in the industry.  Despite this fact, once you have an associate come to the door, it is necessary to try to remember or employ these tactics in retaining the talent.

Training Does Not Stop at Orientation

One of the most common comments uttered by staff is there is not enough training or they are not sure as to what they are doing.  What leadership must keep in mind is that the most important cargo, the patient, is in the hands of another employee who may not have the adequate training from orientation.  Due to the numerous regulatory requirements from a clinical, legal, safety, and risk perspective, an associate who has been hired on the job may feel overwhelmed by the numerous requirements thrown at him or her during the orientation process.  Unlike some industries where you may have more predictable outcomes occur, healthcare outcomes are unpredictable. Depending on the type of position and healthcare organization where the associate works, the acuity of the patients may present a daily challenge. Residents feature mental health illnesses or dementia creates a highly volatile nature in attempting to provide quality care.

Develop Empathy and Understanding

I recall years ago that I trained several people who reported to me on a regular basis.  I had difficulty in having them to recall some of the information provided in training.  One day, I saw with one of the newer trainees a couple of months later, and she informed me how difficult it was to learn not only one major function of her job but to learn about another set of procedures that were very nuanced. It was at that moment I restructured the entire way to train and provided more accessibility and availability to newer trainees to allow them time to become comfortable in what I required.  Although your day as a manager or leader is packed with an ever-constant to do list, checking on your associates or being available to assist their needs, especially when an associate is relatively new to your organization, is a good way to retain associates because you also develop a rapport with that individual. Turnover sometimes is attributed to a lack of empathy, compassion, and understanding. If you know an aide, tech, or R.N. has limited experience when you hired him/her, not providing that extra one on one is a quick way to allow feelings of resentment and frustration take over to the point where resignation creeps in his or her mind.


Identify Ongoing Needs Assessment

The healthcare industry is heavily regulated.  Some of their requirements include in-services to take place with regular frequency.  Despite the state or federal mandates requiring ongoing training, each of your associates has a different level of understanding.  If you are in the healthcare industry, you are in the business of customer service and quality of care.  These two objectives are mutually exclusive, and therefore, if you are not providing an ongoing assessment of your team, you subject your organization and patients to poor outcomes.  In the course of your monitoring associate performance, remember you are generally responsible for their overall performance.

Leadership is an ever-changing process. The challenge is not only recognizing the statistical numbers that are present in key metrics, it is the ability to analyze the human element associated with such stats.  Empathy, compassion, understanding, and communication are areas that are not easily available by a means of a spreadsheet, as well as some customer satisfaction surveys. Sometimes your ability to become intuitive to your current operational environment could pay dividends with improved operational efficiency, improving patient satisfaction outcomes, and addressing the needs of one of your key stakeholders: your associates.

Dr. Terrence D. Duncan: Author of The Four Fits of Holistic Growth (2016), a book that focuses on personal development and self-motivation. By encouraging readers to think outside the box, The Four Fits provides 16 axioms or foundations along with 15 interactive worksheets.

Connect with Dr. Terrence D. Duncan on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-terrence-duncan-8045064a  

Follow on Twitter: @drtduncan



Thought Leadership in Project Management: with Erika Flora, President and Founder of BEYOND20

Erika Flora, PMP, PgMP, PRINCE2

Erika Flora, President and Founder of BEYOND20, started her career as a Microbiologist turned Project Manager and has always had a passion for improving how companies manage work and serve their customer base. In 2006, she started BEYOND20, a consulting and training firm built on expertise in IT Service Management, Cloud Services, and Project Management. Since that time, BEYOND20 has grown to include offices in Washington DC, San Diego, and Phoenix. BEYOND20 customers span 28 countries on 5 continents, and over 25% of Fortune 100 companies work with BEYOND20 to support their process improvement initiatives. BEYOND20 is proud to be a DBE certified woman-owned, minority-owned small business.

Continue reading Thought Leadership in Project Management: with Erika Flora, President and Founder of BEYOND20

Some Reasons Why Projects Fail

– By Dr. Emad Rahim, PMP, CSM

Rapid globalization of business means organizations must significantly increase its capacity to accurately manage information and data. In response to this growing capacity demand, more discussion is needed to develop effective project management processes and approaches.

Many new product developments are cancelled before completion and never implemented. Researchers have indicated that most projects fail because of poor project management skills. In these failed projects, estimation mistakes, lack of clarity, and unstable goal and objectives were cited as core problem areas. Below are additional areas of concern as described in the article, Why Web Projects Fail.


1. Poor planning

In more traditional functional organizations, project managers often lack the time to appropriately plan because of the pressure from senior management, and as a result, the project is performed before the plan is appropriately defined.

2. Unclear Goals and Objectives

Projects must have clearly defined requirements, the absence of which can create timing delays and communication bottlenecks. If a project manager lacks the experience to describe the type and the extent of resources he or she really needs, the project is at risk.

3. Misalignment

Information systems need to be aligned with the organization’s business objectives. When discussing alignment, it is important to address market share, customer satisfaction, employee engagement, corporate citizenship and innovation. To begin, companies must properly assess everything, and then align its findings



Interest in project management is expected to increase in the near future, partly due to rapidly developing globalization and growing awareness of knowledge management. Companies must manage a wider range of coverage, increasingly complex information system architecture, and the rapidly changing environment. In order to face such challenges, senior project managers must create a portfolio management model that is aligned with business goals. It will help the project manager and the team to maintain control over corporate assets and project processes. Furthermore, the project manager should be aware of the common mistakes that destroy business projects and learn from the identified mistakes. These learning experiences should be captured in a repository as “lessons learned” so the successors do not make the same mistakes.


Risk Factors in Communication Management

By Alexandria Loveless, Associate Project Manager at Starbucks

Alexandria Loveless
Alexandria Loveless

It is important for the project manager to understand the cultural differences within their team, department and organization. Cultural factors can create barriers within a team through verbal language, body language and written communications. This can include semantics and connotations, social conventions and nonverbal communication. The project manager needs to take the time to be aware of those around them and respectful of each team member in order to avoid causing cultural issues. This can be done by communicating diversity goals and expectations clearly to the team, not by setting out rules but by setting out the benefits for each individual and the company.


Gender factors can have an impact on communication styles as well. Men and women can complete the same job and task but may communicate the work differently. Male and female communication differences can consist of different styles and structure. Those two factors mixed with the stereotype that both men and women face can cause uncertainty in perception of what is being communicated. The project manager can practice inclusion not only with cultural differences but also with gender differences. This is important to do in as many communications as possible.


Personality factors are built on the human relationships between the project team and others within the office. These personality factors can be obvious such as raising your voice, disrespect, condescension, and intimidation. Personality factors, especially from the project manager, can have dramatic effects on the entire team and can be felt throughout the organization by setting the “organizational tone”. Project managers can seek those with different personalities to be a positive addition to the team by allowing them to be who they are which can allow free thinking and creativeness that can lead to thinking outside the box and problem solving during the project life cycle.

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandria-loveless-709160121 


Project Communication Management & Leadership, Gray, Laron, Schneider, Dowd & De Janasz. (2015) McGraw Hill, 2015.

Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare. The Six Factors of Communication Risk. May/June 2006.http://www.psqh.com/mayjun06/dunsb1.html.

Business Dictionary. Risk Communication. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/risk-communication.html.


The Benefits of Risk Management Planning

A risk management plan ensures that risks are managed properly. The goal is to reduce impact of negative risks and to increase the impact of opportunities. The risk management plan provides a tool for reporting risk to senior managements as well as the project sponsor and team.  The risk management plan does not identify projects risks.

A Risk management plan details how the team will manage risk (Newton, 2015). It describes the level of risk that is tolerable for the organization (Newton, 2015).  It ensures that the level of risk management is commensurate with the identified risks and the organization’s appetite for risk.


As a sub plan of the Project plan, the risk management plan includes the methodology that will be used to manage risk including the tools and data sources. It also identifies the owners of risks and what their responsibilities are to manage those risks. Budgeting for risk management is also included so that resources and funds are available to manage the risks. Risk categories are identified as well as definitions of risk probability and risk impact.  The plan may also describe the reporting formats that will be used in the project as well as the process of communicating risk to stakeholders. Risk management plans will also include a probability and impact matrix to assess impact on project objectives (Newton, 2015).

A risk management plan is developed early on in the project, but is reviewed and updated throughout the project.  The development of the risk management plan begins with looking at project assumptions including data, staffing, etc. (Kendrick, 2015). Risk identification is integrated into all the processes of the project to help uncover additional risks and to decrease the unknowns (Kendrick, 2015).  It is critical to review stakeholder tolerance for risk in the beginning of the project so that plans can be made to address the stakeholder need for precise estimates, clearly defined deliverables, and frequency of communication (Kendrick, 2015).

The risk management plan is integrated with other project management plans. It needs to be aligned with the other documents beginning with the project charter. Certain kinds of projects have specific kinds of risks associated with them.  The cost plan determines how risk may be carried into a project through budgeting, procurement and expenditure.  The schedule plan will highlight risk that is carried into a project because of tight timelines or the level/complexity of activities.   The communication plan has information about key stakeholders and their concerns about specific risks and the frequency with which they must be updated.

Defining risks is part of determining scope, budget and schedule.  Project managers need to be alert to risks that may be hidden or unknown as these processes unfold. In particular, risks can be found where there are knowledge gaps or incomplete data.  The risk management plan is integrated with all processes in the management of the project.

Planning For Risk Management



Kendrick, T. (2015). Identifying and managing project risk (3rd ed.). New York,

Newton, P. (2015).  Managing project risk. Retrieved from http://www.free-management-ebooks.com/dldebk-pdf/fme-project-risk.pdf